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• Binary_option : definition of Binary_option and synonyms ... # Boolean data type

In computer science, the Boolean data type is a data type that has one of two possible values (usually denoted true and false) which is intended to represent the two truth values of logic and Boolean algebra. It is named after George Boole, who first defined an algebraic system of logic in the mid 19th century. The Boolean data type is primarily associated with conditional) statements, which allow different actions by changing control flow depending on whether a programmer-specified Boolean condition evaluates to true or false. It is a special case of a more general logical data type (see probabilistic logic)—logic doesn't always need to be Boolean.

## Generalities

In programming languages with a built-in Boolean data type, such as Pascal) and Java), the comparison operators such as > and ≠ are usually defined to return a Boolean value. Conditional and iterative commands may be defined to test Boolean-valued expressions.
Languages with no explicit Boolean data type, like C90 and Lisp), may still represent truth values by some other data type. Common Lisp uses an empty list for false, and any other value for true. The C programming language uses an integer) type, where relational expressions like i > j and logical expressions connected by && and || are defined to have value 1 if true and 0 if false, whereas the test parts of if , while , for , etc., treat any non-zero value as true. Indeed, a Boolean variable may be regarded (and implemented) as a numerical variable with one binary digit (bit), which can store only two values. The implementation of Booleans in computers are most likely represented as a full word), rather than a bit; this is usually due to the ways computers transfer blocks of information.
Most programming languages, even those with no explicit Boolean type, have support for Boolean algebraic operations such as conjunction (AND , & , * ), disjunction (OR , | , + ), equivalence (EQV , = , == ), exclusive or/non-equivalence (XOR , NEQV , ^ , != ), and negation (NOT , ~ , ! ).
In some languages, like Ruby), Smalltalk, and Alice) the true and false values belong to separate classes), i.e., True and False , respectively, so there is no one Boolean type.
In SQL, which uses a three-valued logic for explicit comparisons because of its special treatment of Nulls), the Boolean data type (introduced in SQL:1999) is also defined to include more than two truth values, so that SQL Booleans can store all logical values resulting from the evaluation of predicates in SQL. A column of Boolean type can also be restricted to just TRUE and FALSE though.

## ALGOL and the built-in boolean type

One of the earliest programming languages to provide an explicit boolean data type is ALGOL 60 (1960) with values true and false and logical operators denoted by symbols ' ∧ {\displaystyle \wedge } 📷' (and), ' ∨ {\displaystyle \vee } 📷' (or), ' ⊃ {\displaystyle \supset } 📷' (implies), ' ≡ {\displaystyle \equiv } 📷' (equivalence), and ' ¬ {\displaystyle \neg } 📷' (not). Due to input device and character set limits on many computers of the time, however, most compilers used alternative representations for many of the operators, such as AND or 'AND' .
This approach with boolean as a built-in (either primitive or otherwise predefined) data type was adopted by many later programming languages, such as Simula 67 (1967), ALGOL 68 (1970), Pascal) (1970), Ada) (1980), Java) (1995), and C#) (2000), among others.

## Fortran

The first version of FORTRAN (1957) and its successor FORTRAN II (1958) have no logical values or operations; even the conditional IF statement takes an arithmetic expression and branches to one of three locations according to its sign; see arithmetic IF. FORTRAN IV (1962), however, follows the ALGOL 60 example by providing a Boolean data type (LOGICAL ), truth literals (.TRUE. and .FALSE. ), Boolean-valued numeric comparison operators (.EQ. , .GT. , etc.), and logical operators (.NOT. , .AND. , .OR. ). In FORMAT statements, a specific format descriptor ('L ') is provided for the parsing or formatting of logical values.

## Lisp and Scheme

The language Lisp) (1958) never had a built-in Boolean data type. Instead, conditional constructs like cond assume that the logical value false is represented by the empty list () , which is defined to be the same as the special atom nil or NIL ; whereas any other s-expression is interpreted as true. For convenience, most modern dialects of Lisp predefine the atom t to have value t , so that t can be used as a mnemonic notation for true.
This approach (any value can be used as a Boolean value) was retained in most Lisp dialects (Common Lisp, Scheme), Emacs Lisp), and similar models were adopted by many scripting languages, even ones having a distinct Boolean type or Boolean values; although which values are interpreted as false and which are true vary from language to language. In Scheme, for example, the false value is an atom distinct from the empty list, so the latter is interpreted as true.

The language Pascal) (1970) introduced the concept of programmer-defined enumerated types. A built-in Boolean data type was then provided as a predefined enumerated type with values FALSE and TRUE . By definition, all comparisons, logical operations, and conditional statements applied to and/or yielded Boolean values. Otherwise, the Boolean type had all the facilities which were available for enumerated types in general, such as ordering and use as indices. In contrast, converting between Boolean s and integers (or any other types) still required explicit tests or function calls, as in ALGOL 60. This approach (Boolean is an enumerated type) was adopted by most later languages which had enumerated types, such as Modula, Ada), and Haskell).

## C, C++, Objective-C, AWK

Initial implementations of the language C) (1972) provided no Boolean type, and to this day Boolean values are commonly represented by integers (int s) in C programs. The comparison operators (> , == , etc.) are defined to return a signed integer (int ) result, either 0 (for false) or 1 (for true). Logical operators (&& , || , ! , etc.) and condition-testing statements (if , while ) assume that zero is false and all other values are true.
After enumerated types (enum s) were added to the American National Standards Institute version of C, ANSI C (1989), many C programmers got used to defining their own Boolean types as such, for readability reasons. However, enumerated types are equivalent to integers according to the language standards; so the effective identity between Booleans and integers is still valid for C programs.
Standard C) (since C99) provides a boolean type, called _Bool . By including the header stdbool.h , one can use the more intuitive name bool and the constants true and false . The language guarantees that any two true values will compare equal (which was impossible to achieve before the introduction of the type). Boolean values still behave as integers, can be stored in integer variables, and used anywhere integers would be valid, including in indexing, arithmetic, parsing, and formatting. This approach (Boolean values are just integers) has been retained in all later versions of C. Note, that this does not mean that any integer value can be stored in a boolean variable.
C++ has a separate Boolean data type bool , but with automatic conversions from scalar and pointer values that are very similar to those of C. This approach was adopted also by many later languages, especially by some scripting languages such as AWK.
Objective-C also has a separate Boolean data type BOOL , with possible values being YES or NO , equivalents of true and false respectively. Also, in Objective-C compilers that support C99, C's _Bool type can be used, since Objective-C is a superset of C.

## Perl and Lua

Perl has no boolean data type. Instead, any value can behave as boolean in boolean context (condition of if or while statement, argument of && or || , etc.). The number 0 , the strings "0" and "" , the empty list () , and the special value undef evaluate to false. All else evaluates to true.
Lua) has a boolean data type, but non-boolean values can also behave as booleans. The non-value nil evaluates to false, whereas every other data type always evaluates to true, regardless of value.

## Tcl

Tcl has no separate Boolean type. Like in C, the integers 0 (false) and 1 (true - in fact any nonzero integer) are used.
Examples of coding:
set v 1 if { $v } { puts "V is 1 or true" } The above will show "V is 1 or true" since the expression evaluates to '1' set v "" if {$v } ....
The above will render an error as variable 'v' cannot be evaluated as '0' or '1'

## Python, Ruby, and JavaScript

Python), from version 2.3 forward, has a bool type which is a subclass) of int , the standard integer type. It has two possible values: True and False , which are special versions of 1 and 0 respectively and behave as such in arithmetic contexts. Also, a numeric value of zero (integer or fractional), the null value (None ), the empty string), and empty containers (i.e. lists), sets), etc.) are considered Boolean false; all other values are considered Boolean true by default. Classes can define how their instances are treated in a Boolean context through the special method __nonzero__ (Python 2) or __bool__ (Python 3). For containers, __len__ (the special method for determining the length of containers) is used if the explicit Boolean conversion method is not defined.
In Ruby), in contrast, only nil (Ruby's null value) and a special false object are false, all else (including the integer 0 and empty arrays) is true.
In JavaScript, the empty string ("" ), null , undefined , NaN , +0, −0 and false  are sometimes called falsy (of which the complement) is truthy) to distinguish between strictly type-checked and coerced Booleans. As opposed to Python, empty containers (arrays , Maps, Sets) are considered truthy. Languages such as PHP also use this approach.

## Next Generation Shell

Next Generation Shell, has Bool type. It has two possible values: true and false . Bool is not interchangeable with Int and have to be converted explicitly if needed. When a Boolean value of an expression is needed (for example in if statement), Bool method is called. Bool method for built-in types is defined such that it returns false for a numeric value of zero, the null value, the empty string), empty containers (i.e. lists), sets), etc.), external processes that exited with non-zero exit code; for other values Bool returns true. Types for which Bool method is defined can be used in Boolean context. When evaluating an expression in Boolean context, If no appropriate Bool method is defined, an exception is thrown.

## SQL

Main article: Null (SQL) § Comparisons with NULL and the three-valued logic (3VL)#Comparisonswith_NULL_and_the_three-valued_logic(3VL))
Booleans appear in SQL when a condition is needed, such as WHERE clause, in form of predicate which is produced by using operators such as comparison operators, IN operator, IS (NOT) NULL etc. However, apart from TRUE and FALSE, these operators can also yield a third state, called UNKNOWN, when comparison with NULL is made.
The treatment of boolean values differs between SQL systems.
For example, in Microsoft SQL Server, boolean value is not supported at all, neither as a standalone data type nor representable as an integer. It shows an error message "An expression of non-boolean type specified in a context where a condition is expected" if a column is directly used in the WHERE clause, e.g. SELECT a FROM t WHERE a , while statement such as SELECT column IS NOT NULL FROM t yields a syntax error. The BIT data type, which can only store integers 0 and 1 apart from NULL, is commonly used as a workaround to store Boolean values, but workarounds need to be used such as UPDATE t SET flag = IIF(col IS NOT NULL, 1, 0) WHERE flag = 0 to convert between the integer and boolean expression.
In PostgreSQL, there is a distinct BOOLEAN type as in the standard which allows predicates to be stored directly into a BOOLEAN column, and allows using a BOOLEAN column directly as a predicate in WHERE clause.
In MySQL, BOOLEAN is treated as an alias as TINYINT(1), TRUE is the same as integer 1 and FALSE is the same is integer 0., and treats any non-zero integer as true when evaluating conditions.
The SQL92 standard introduced IS (NOT) TRUE, IS (NOT) FALSE, IS (NOT) UNKNOWN operators which evaluate a predicate, which predated the introduction of boolean type in SQL:1999
The SQL:1999 standard introduced a BOOLEAN data type as an optional feature (T031). When restricted by a NOT NULL constraint, a SQL BOOLEAN behaves like Booleans in other languages, which can store only TRUE and FALSE values. However, if it is nullable, which is the default like all other SQL data types, it can have the special null) value also. Although the SQL standard defines three literals) for the BOOLEAN type – TRUE, FALSE, and UNKNOWN – it also says that the NULL BOOLEAN and UNKNOWN "may be used interchangeably to mean exactly the same thing". This has caused some controversy because the identification subjects UNKNOWN to the equality comparison rules for NULL. More precisely UNKNOWN = UNKNOWN is not TRUE but UNKNOWN/NULL. As of 2012 few major SQL systems implement the T031 feature. Firebird and PostgreSQL are notable exceptions, although PostgreSQL implements no UNKNOWN literal; NULL can be used instead.

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## References

1. "PostgreSQL: Documentation: 10: 8.6. Boolean Type". www.postgresql.org. Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
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##### Education Calculators 4

Kinetic Energy Calculator
This kinetic energy calculator is a tool that helps you evaluate the energy of the movement. It is based on the formula of the kinetic energy, which is applied to all objects in a vertical or horizontal movement.
The following article explains:
What it is the kinetic energy
How the formula is used in kinetic energy
The definition of kinetic energy
What are some common units of kinetic energy
What is the difference between potential and kinetic energy
How can you apply the work-energy theorem
As the dynamic pressure and kinetic energy equations relate to each other
definition kinetic energy
The encyclopedia provides the following definition of kinetic energy:

The kinetic energy of an object is the energy it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated speed. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains its kinetic energy unless its speed changes. The same amount of work is done by the body deceleration from its current speed to an idle state.
https://www.ecalculator.co/calc/kinetic-energy-calculator
https://www.calculators.tech/kinetic-energy-calculator

Modulo Calculator
This calculator module is a very useful tool if you need to find the result of modulo operations. All you have to do is enter the starting number x and integer and to find the number of r module, according to x mod y = r. Read on to discover what modulo operations are, how to calculate the module and how to properly use this calculator.
What are modulo operations?
Imagine a clock hanging on a wall. Let's say it's late at night - 23:00 🕚. One wonders what the time will be when you wake up after 8 hours of sleep. You can not just add 8 to 11, since no time like 19 hours. To find the correct answer is necessary to perform a modulo operation (mod 12) - these two numbers are added, and further subtracting 12 until a lower number is obtained 12. In this case, 7. You just calculated that wakes at 7:00 a.m. 🕖.
modulo operations in the event that the clock is so intuitive that even notice them. In mathematics, there are many types of operations more complicated module requiring further reflection. We can note that:
x mod y = r

It is true if there is such an integer q (called ratio), then:

and * q + r = x.

Otherwise, the number r is the remainder of the division), where x is the dividend, and y is the divisor.
If the module definition does not like you and still unsure of how to calculate module, take a look at the next paragraph, and everything should become crystal clear.
https://www.ecalculator.co/calc/modulo-calculator
https://www.calculators.tech/modulo-calculator

Log Calculator
Our logarithmizer determines the logarithmic value of a given number that provides the basis for registration. When the base is provided for recording, one can calculate the natural logarithm, common register and binary values ​​registration. It's just a matter of choice. This equation solving registry is a tool to facilitate free use mathematicians, engineers, physicists and students in particular.
What is the logarithm?
In mathematics, the record is the inverse function of exponentiation. What this implies is that the registration of a given number, say x, is the exponent to another static number, base (eg b) should be raised to reproduce the number x
In the simplest case, the registration summarizes the number of occurrences of the same multiplication factor repetitive; for example, from 10000 = 10 \ * 10 \ * 10 \ * 10 = 10410000 = 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 = 104, the "log 10" 10000 is 4. The record xa base b represents as log b (x). Here's how you can write a record.
Figuring record with our calculator
This base is our log calculator is exceptionally easy to use. You have to follow very simple steps to make the calculation. The user interface of this calculator ln ensures that even this is not necessary, but we will list the steps just in case.
First, choose the record you want to calculate, for example: natural logarithm, common register, log binary or custom log.
Second, enter the base value.
Third, press 'Calculate'
That's. their response would be obtained
How to calculate the logarithm?
Records are very useful in measuring or calculating the largest value that is beyond the scope of a simple calculator such as the distance between two galaxies, population growth or volume of water on earth. It is estimated these and other types of calculations with great accuracy.
The standard equation for the log function: \ log b (x) = ylogb (x) = y
In this equation, and is the logarithm, that is the number of times that multiplies while x is the number given to calculate the log while b is the base multiplies itself.
https://www.calculators.tech/log-calculator
https://www.ecalculator.co/calc/log-calculator

Octal calculator
Our performs conventional mathematical octal calculator, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division octal numbers
He has surely heard talk about these operations are performed in the decimal system, but can also be performed in other systems, in this case: octal.
Not only that, these operations into other systems have different practical applications, so read later in the article.
First let's get the basics right!
A little history of the octal numbering system
What is octal? It is a numerical system base 8 digits represented by (0-7) unlike the decimal system having a base 10.
octal numbers can be constructed from binary numbers by grouping subsequent binary numbers in three classes (starting from the right).
For example, the binary characterization for decimal value 74 is 1001010. Two 0s can be placed on the left side: (00) 1001010, corresponding to the octal digits 1 1 2, giving the octal significance to the decimal value 45 as 112. for calculation according to the binary number check the binary system and to hexadecimal Hex Calculator.
Using Octal Calculator
In order to make calculations, just follow the steps below:
Enter the first octal digit.
Enter the second octal digit.
Select the type of operation you want to perform: whether the addition, subtraction or multiplication or division or.
Press 'Calculate'
And that's it, it's as simple as that
https://www.calculators.tech/octal-calculator
https://www.ecalculator.co/calc/octal-calculator
https://www.prepostseo.com/calc/octal-calculator

Midpoint Calculator
What is the midpoint of the calculator?
The term midpoint is a mathematical term related to the coordinate geometry. To understand more about this, consider the following set of coordinates.
A (4, 2) and B (6, 4) and to calculate the midpoint, the following formula would be applied.
Midpoint = (X1 + X2 / 2, Y1 + Y2 / 2)
In the above set of points, the values ​​X1, Y1, X2 and Y2 are given as
X1 = 4, X2 = 6, Y1 = 2, Y2 =
Therefore, the midpoint would be given a
Midpoint = (4 + 6/2 + 4/2 2
Midpoint = (5,0)
A midpoint calculator quality is the most important
The accuracy of the calculations depends on how reliable the calculator used. This calculator is immensely reliable and users can be assured of the accuracy of the results. Here are the steps you need to complete so that the midpoint can be determined
1. Input values
From the first drop-down menu, it is necessary to select "midpoint". As soon as this option is selected, the text boxes for the four coordinates appear on the screen. Now, here, you have two options for entering values. One is that you can generate values ​​and the other is entering manually. After entering the input values, click the calculate button to generate results. On the right side of the screen, you will see the output values.
1. Output values ​​produced
When you have entered the proper values ​​input, multiple output values ​​would occur on the right side. These include diameter midpoint circumferences midpoint and the radius of the midpoint
Core Benefits of our calculator
It is not easy to make a selection when you have several alternatives available at your disposal. This calculator is a better alternative for users who wish to calculate the midpoint. Some of the key benefits you can look listed below.
Use online without any facilities
It is a tiring process cumbersome for users when they have tools to install and use. No need to perform these steps when using this calculator. It is completely online and can be used without downloading anything. These benefits users who have less time on their hands and have multiple complete calculations midpoint.
100% accuracy assured
The purpose of using an online calculator is to eliminate all possibilities of accuracy problems. This is only possible if the calculator is reliable. All online calculators are not completely reliable. This calculator is completely reliable and users do not have to check the calculations after the results occur.
Time saving immense ease
Mathematical calculations consume considerable time and it becomes difficult for the particular user when you have to perform the steps more than once. This calculator has a very simple interface and helps in performing various calculations quickly. It is suitable for students and mathematicians. If you wish to complete your task quickly and without making any mistakes, this calculator suit you.
free and without applying use conditions
Not an easy task to find a tool that is really free and has no quality problems. This midpoint calculator is completely free and users do not have to restrict their use to a certain period of time. Other than that, all functions can be used for free. If you want to perform several calculations to the same time, you can do so without having to worry about acquiring a paid version.
https://www.ecalculator.co/calc/midpoint-calculator
https://www.calculators.tech/midpoint-calculator

Ohms Law Calculator
Ohm's law basically refers to the relationship between the electric current, voltage and resistance also. The electric current depends on a number of different factors including the resistance and voltage are the most prominent. The electric current flow stops by the resistance. Resistance refers basically to the force acting as a reaction to the current flow that is directed opposite to the electric current and therefore the current flow or minimizes stops.
Furthermore, the voltage refers to the potential difference that occurs between both. Ohm's law tells us that the current is directly related to the voltage and inversely related to the resistance. Which has an importance in terms of the description of the current and the factors that influence it one way or another.
Using OHM LAW CALCULATOR?
The many different uses of this calculator is not deniable and another factor that makes it amazing is that a calculator is not complex or difficult to use. No need '' a lot 'of time to calculate the required value. Therefore, it is not only very useful calculator, but also very comfortable to use. There are some simple instructions and guidelines that will guide you on how to use the calculator. (These are given below)
The calculator is able to calculate three things,
Voltage: With different resistance values ​​and current.
Current: With variable values ​​of resistance and voltage.
Resistance: With numerous different values ​​of voltage and current.
Therefore, two values ​​must be known to calculate the third. In addition, note that values ​​must be with the standard unit.
Example, resistance in OHM and the current in amperes.
You just have to fill the square boxes and by using the formula,
Current = constant x stress / resistance, the calculator gives the required value in seconds.
https://www.ecalculator.co/calc/ohms-law-calculator
https://www.calculators.tech/ohms-law-calculator

##### Izumi3682 Archives

‘Brain-like microchip the size of fingernail’ could replace supercomputers – MIT study by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 5 months ago
Yes, that is why I posted from RT. I felt they were correct and no other source had released this story at that moment.
‘Brain-like microchip the size of fingernail’ could replace supercomputers – MIT study by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 5 months ago
Yes.
Just use critical thinking. I admitted there may be merit to this story and that is why I posted it. I think you should give equal time to CNN and MSNBC as straight up anti-American, godless liberal propaganda.
Anyways all political factions have good ideas and flaws. It's like that one Star Trek episode where Cpt Kirk gets split by the transporter and there is now two Cpt Kirks - one the aggressive, decisive one and the other the touchy-feely, thoughtful one. But both are essential to proper operation of Cpt Kirk. Well the same holds true for the USA at this time. Think of it as a sort of national bicameral mind. Both philosophies are essential to proper operation of the USA.
I would further add that capitalism was very effective in it's day for the bulk of USA citizens, but that it has been going on for so long that clever humans have learned how to effectively game the system for personal benefit. The actual application of capitalism is now wildly skewed, which is why there is a 1% and a 99%. And the AI, robotics and automation are not helping matters. I would hope our exponentially advancing technology would soon allow us to by-pass capitalism, or any "ism" for that matter and get us a post-scarcity society. Or at least basic things would be a lot cheaper or something. Personally I'm hoping the VR will be so awesome that I won't care.
‘Brain-like microchip the size of fingernail’ could replace supercomputers – MIT study by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 6 points 5 months ago
As a rule I think of RT as straight up Soviet (yes, I said "Soviet") propaganda. Nevertheless this seems to be a fairly new development and it felt appropriate to use this source. Did they get a scoop? Maybe. But take it with a grain of salt.