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Boolean data type

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In computer science, the Boolean data type is a data type that has one of two possible values (usually denoted true and false) which is intended to represent the two truth values of logic and Boolean algebra. It is named after George Boole, who first defined an algebraic system of logic in the mid 19th century. The Boolean data type is primarily associated with conditional) statements, which allow different actions by changing control flow depending on whether a programmer-specified Boolean condition evaluates to true or false. It is a special case of a more general logical data type (see probabilistic logic)—logic doesn't always need to be Boolean.



In programming languages with a built-in Boolean data type, such as Pascal) and Java), the comparison operators such as > and ≠ are usually defined to return a Boolean value. Conditional and iterative commands may be defined to test Boolean-valued expressions.
Languages with no explicit Boolean data type, like C90 and Lisp), may still represent truth values by some other data type. Common Lisp uses an empty list for false, and any other value for true. The C programming language uses an integer) type, where relational expressions like i > j and logical expressions connected by && and || are defined to have value 1 if true and 0 if false, whereas the test parts of if , while , for , etc., treat any non-zero value as true.[1][2] Indeed, a Boolean variable may be regarded (and implemented) as a numerical variable with one binary digit (bit), which can store only two values. The implementation of Booleans in computers are most likely represented as a full word), rather than a bit; this is usually due to the ways computers transfer blocks of information.
Most programming languages, even those with no explicit Boolean type, have support for Boolean algebraic operations such as conjunction (AND , & , * ), disjunction (OR , | , + ), equivalence (EQV , = , == ), exclusive or/non-equivalence (XOR , NEQV , ^ , != ), and negation (NOT , ~ , ! ).
In some languages, like Ruby), Smalltalk, and Alice) the true and false values belong to separate classes), i.e., True and False , respectively, so there is no one Boolean type.
In SQL, which uses a three-valued logic for explicit comparisons because of its special treatment of Nulls), the Boolean data type (introduced in SQL:1999) is also defined to include more than two truth values, so that SQL Booleans can store all logical values resulting from the evaluation of predicates in SQL. A column of Boolean type can also be restricted to just TRUE and FALSE though.

ALGOL and the built-in boolean type

One of the earliest programming languages to provide an explicit boolean data type is ALGOL 60 (1960) with values true and false and logical operators denoted by symbols ' ∧ {\displaystyle \wedge } 📷' (and), ' ∨ {\displaystyle \vee } 📷' (or), ' ⊃ {\displaystyle \supset } 📷' (implies), ' ≡ {\displaystyle \equiv } 📷' (equivalence), and ' ¬ {\displaystyle \neg } 📷' (not). Due to input device and character set limits on many computers of the time, however, most compilers used alternative representations for many of the operators, such as AND or 'AND' .
This approach with boolean as a built-in (either primitive or otherwise predefined) data type was adopted by many later programming languages, such as Simula 67 (1967), ALGOL 68 (1970),[3] Pascal) (1970), Ada) (1980), Java) (1995), and C#) (2000), among others.


The first version of FORTRAN (1957) and its successor FORTRAN II (1958) have no logical values or operations; even the conditional IF statement takes an arithmetic expression and branches to one of three locations according to its sign; see arithmetic IF. FORTRAN IV (1962), however, follows the ALGOL 60 example by providing a Boolean data type (LOGICAL ), truth literals (.TRUE. and .FALSE. ), Boolean-valued numeric comparison operators (.EQ. , .GT. , etc.), and logical operators (.NOT. , .AND. , .OR. ). In FORMAT statements, a specific format descriptor ('L ') is provided for the parsing or formatting of logical values.[4]

Lisp and Scheme

The language Lisp) (1958) never had a built-in Boolean data type. Instead, conditional constructs like cond assume that the logical value false is represented by the empty list () , which is defined to be the same as the special atom nil or NIL ; whereas any other s-expression is interpreted as true. For convenience, most modern dialects of Lisp predefine the atom t to have value t , so that t can be used as a mnemonic notation for true.
This approach (any value can be used as a Boolean value) was retained in most Lisp dialects (Common Lisp, Scheme), Emacs Lisp), and similar models were adopted by many scripting languages, even ones having a distinct Boolean type or Boolean values; although which values are interpreted as false and which are true vary from language to language. In Scheme, for example, the false value is an atom distinct from the empty list, so the latter is interpreted as true.

Pascal, Ada, and Haskell

The language Pascal) (1970) introduced the concept of programmer-defined enumerated types. A built-in Boolean data type was then provided as a predefined enumerated type with values FALSE and TRUE . By definition, all comparisons, logical operations, and conditional statements applied to and/or yielded Boolean values. Otherwise, the Boolean type had all the facilities which were available for enumerated types in general, such as ordering and use as indices. In contrast, converting between Boolean s and integers (or any other types) still required explicit tests or function calls, as in ALGOL 60. This approach (Boolean is an enumerated type) was adopted by most later languages which had enumerated types, such as Modula, Ada), and Haskell).

C, C++, Objective-C, AWK

Initial implementations of the language C) (1972) provided no Boolean type, and to this day Boolean values are commonly represented by integers (int s) in C programs. The comparison operators (> , == , etc.) are defined to return a signed integer (int ) result, either 0 (for false) or 1 (for true). Logical operators (&& , || , ! , etc.) and condition-testing statements (if , while ) assume that zero is false and all other values are true.
After enumerated types (enum s) were added to the American National Standards Institute version of C, ANSI C (1989), many C programmers got used to defining their own Boolean types as such, for readability reasons. However, enumerated types are equivalent to integers according to the language standards; so the effective identity between Booleans and integers is still valid for C programs.
Standard C) (since C99) provides a boolean type, called _Bool . By including the header stdbool.h , one can use the more intuitive name bool and the constants true and false . The language guarantees that any two true values will compare equal (which was impossible to achieve before the introduction of the type). Boolean values still behave as integers, can be stored in integer variables, and used anywhere integers would be valid, including in indexing, arithmetic, parsing, and formatting. This approach (Boolean values are just integers) has been retained in all later versions of C. Note, that this does not mean that any integer value can be stored in a boolean variable.
C++ has a separate Boolean data type bool , but with automatic conversions from scalar and pointer values that are very similar to those of C. This approach was adopted also by many later languages, especially by some scripting languages such as AWK.
Objective-C also has a separate Boolean data type BOOL , with possible values being YES or NO , equivalents of true and false respectively.[5] Also, in Objective-C compilers that support C99, C's _Bool type can be used, since Objective-C is a superset of C.

Perl and Lua

Perl has no boolean data type. Instead, any value can behave as boolean in boolean context (condition of if or while statement, argument of && or || , etc.). The number 0 , the strings "0" and "" , the empty list () , and the special value undef evaluate to false.[6] All else evaluates to true.
Lua) has a boolean data type, but non-boolean values can also behave as booleans. The non-value nil evaluates to false, whereas every other data type always evaluates to true, regardless of value.


Tcl has no separate Boolean type. Like in C, the integers 0 (false) and 1 (true - in fact any nonzero integer) are used.[7]
Examples of coding:
set v 1 if { $v } { puts "V is 1 or true" }
The above will show "V is 1 or true" since the expression evaluates to '1'
set v "" if { $v } ....
The above will render an error as variable 'v' cannot be evaluated as '0' or '1'

Python, Ruby, and JavaScript

Python), from version 2.3 forward, has a bool type which is a subclass) of int , the standard integer type.[8] It has two possible values: True and False , which are special versions of 1 and 0 respectively and behave as such in arithmetic contexts. Also, a numeric value of zero (integer or fractional), the null value (None ), the empty string), and empty containers (i.e. lists), sets), etc.) are considered Boolean false; all other values are considered Boolean true by default.[9] Classes can define how their instances are treated in a Boolean context through the special method __nonzero__ (Python 2) or __bool__ (Python 3). For containers, __len__ (the special method for determining the length of containers) is used if the explicit Boolean conversion method is not defined.
In Ruby), in contrast, only nil (Ruby's null value) and a special false object are false, all else (including the integer 0 and empty arrays) is true.
In JavaScript, the empty string ("" ), null , undefined , NaN , +0, −0 and false [10] are sometimes called falsy (of which the complement) is truthy) to distinguish between strictly type-checked and coerced Booleans.[11] As opposed to Python, empty containers (arrays , Maps, Sets) are considered truthy. Languages such as PHP also use this approach.

Next Generation Shell

Next Generation Shell, has Bool type. It has two possible values: true and false . Bool is not interchangeable with Int and have to be converted explicitly if needed. When a Boolean value of an expression is needed (for example in if statement), Bool method is called. Bool method for built-in types is defined such that it returns false for a numeric value of zero, the null value, the empty string), empty containers (i.e. lists), sets), etc.), external processes that exited with non-zero exit code; for other values Bool returns true. Types for which Bool method is defined can be used in Boolean context. When evaluating an expression in Boolean context, If no appropriate Bool method is defined, an exception is thrown.


Main article: Null (SQL) § Comparisons with NULL and the three-valued logic (3VL)#Comparisonswith_NULL_and_the_three-valued_logic(3VL))
Booleans appear in SQL when a condition is needed, such as WHERE clause, in form of predicate which is produced by using operators such as comparison operators, IN operator, IS (NOT) NULL etc. However, apart from TRUE and FALSE, these operators can also yield a third state, called UNKNOWN, when comparison with NULL is made.
The treatment of boolean values differs between SQL systems.
For example, in Microsoft SQL Server, boolean value is not supported at all, neither as a standalone data type nor representable as an integer. It shows an error message "An expression of non-boolean type specified in a context where a condition is expected" if a column is directly used in the WHERE clause, e.g. SELECT a FROM t WHERE a , while statement such as SELECT column IS NOT NULL FROM t yields a syntax error. The BIT data type, which can only store integers 0 and 1 apart from NULL, is commonly used as a workaround to store Boolean values, but workarounds need to be used such as UPDATE t SET flag = IIF(col IS NOT NULL, 1, 0) WHERE flag = 0 to convert between the integer and boolean expression.
In PostgreSQL, there is a distinct BOOLEAN type as in the standard[12] which allows predicates to be stored directly into a BOOLEAN column, and allows using a BOOLEAN column directly as a predicate in WHERE clause.
In MySQL, BOOLEAN is treated as an alias as TINYINT(1)[13], TRUE is the same as integer 1 and FALSE is the same is integer 0.[14], and treats any non-zero integer as true when evaluating conditions.
The SQL92 standard introduced IS (NOT) TRUE, IS (NOT) FALSE, IS (NOT) UNKNOWN operators which evaluate a predicate, which predated the introduction of boolean type in SQL:1999
The SQL:1999 standard introduced a BOOLEAN data type as an optional feature (T031). When restricted by a NOT NULL constraint, a SQL BOOLEAN behaves like Booleans in other languages, which can store only TRUE and FALSE values. However, if it is nullable, which is the default like all other SQL data types, it can have the special null) value also. Although the SQL standard defines three literals) for the BOOLEAN type – TRUE, FALSE, and UNKNOWN – it also says that the NULL BOOLEAN and UNKNOWN "may be used interchangeably to mean exactly the same thing".[15][16] This has caused some controversy because the identification subjects UNKNOWN to the equality comparison rules for NULL. More precisely UNKNOWN = UNKNOWN is not TRUE but UNKNOWN/NULL.[17] As of 2012 few major SQL systems implement the T031 feature.[18] Firebird and PostgreSQL are notable exceptions, although PostgreSQL implements no UNKNOWN literal; NULL can be used instead.[19]

See also

Data typesUninterpreted
Related topics


  1. "PostgreSQL: Documentation: 10: 8.6. Boolean Type". Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.

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Education Calculators 4

Kinetic Energy Calculator
This kinetic energy calculator is a tool that helps you evaluate the energy of the movement. It is based on the formula of the kinetic energy, which is applied to all objects in a vertical or horizontal movement.
The following article explains:
What it is the kinetic energy
How the formula is used in kinetic energy
The definition of kinetic energy
What are some common units of kinetic energy
What is the difference between potential and kinetic energy
How can you apply the work-energy theorem
As the dynamic pressure and kinetic energy equations relate to each other
definition kinetic energy
The encyclopedia provides the following definition of kinetic energy:

The kinetic energy of an object is the energy it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated speed. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains its kinetic energy unless its speed changes. The same amount of work is done by the body deceleration from its current speed to an idle state.

Modulo Calculator
This calculator module is a very useful tool if you need to find the result of modulo operations. All you have to do is enter the starting number x and integer and to find the number of r module, according to x mod y = r. Read on to discover what modulo operations are, how to calculate the module and how to properly use this calculator.
What are modulo operations?
Imagine a clock hanging on a wall. Let's say it's late at night - 23:00 🕚. One wonders what the time will be when you wake up after 8 hours of sleep. You can not just add 8 to 11, since no time like 19 hours. To find the correct answer is necessary to perform a modulo operation (mod 12) - these two numbers are added, and further subtracting 12 until a lower number is obtained 12. In this case, 7. You just calculated that wakes at 7:00 a.m. 🕖.
modulo operations in the event that the clock is so intuitive that even notice them. In mathematics, there are many types of operations more complicated module requiring further reflection. We can note that:
x mod y = r

It is true if there is such an integer q (called ratio), then:

and * q + r = x.

Otherwise, the number r is the remainder of the division), where x is the dividend, and y is the divisor.
If the module definition does not like you and still unsure of how to calculate module, take a look at the next paragraph, and everything should become crystal clear.

Log Calculator
Our logarithmizer determines the logarithmic value of a given number that provides the basis for registration. When the base is provided for recording, one can calculate the natural logarithm, common register and binary values ​​registration. It's just a matter of choice. This equation solving registry is a tool to facilitate free use mathematicians, engineers, physicists and students in particular.
What is the logarithm?
In mathematics, the record is the inverse function of exponentiation. What this implies is that the registration of a given number, say x, is the exponent to another static number, base (eg b) should be raised to reproduce the number x
In the simplest case, the registration summarizes the number of occurrences of the same multiplication factor repetitive; for example, from 10000 = 10 \ * 10 \ * 10 \ * 10 = 10410000 = 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 = 104, the "log 10" 10000 is 4. The record xa base b represents as log b (x). Here's how you can write a record.
Figuring record with our calculator
This base is our log calculator is exceptionally easy to use. You have to follow very simple steps to make the calculation. The user interface of this calculator ln ensures that even this is not necessary, but we will list the steps just in case.
First, choose the record you want to calculate, for example: natural logarithm, common register, log binary or custom log.
Second, enter the base value.
Third, press 'Calculate'
That's. their response would be obtained
How to calculate the logarithm?
Records are very useful in measuring or calculating the largest value that is beyond the scope of a simple calculator such as the distance between two galaxies, population growth or volume of water on earth. It is estimated these and other types of calculations with great accuracy.
The standard equation for the log function: \ log b (x) = ylogb (x) = y
In this equation, and is the logarithm, that is the number of times that multiplies while x is the number given to calculate the log while b is the base multiplies itself.

Octal calculator
Our performs conventional mathematical octal calculator, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division octal numbers
He has surely heard talk about these operations are performed in the decimal system, but can also be performed in other systems, in this case: octal.
Not only that, these operations into other systems have different practical applications, so read later in the article.
First let's get the basics right!
A little history of the octal numbering system
What is octal? It is a numerical system base 8 digits represented by (0-7) unlike the decimal system having a base 10.
octal numbers can be constructed from binary numbers by grouping subsequent binary numbers in three classes (starting from the right).
For example, the binary characterization for decimal value 74 is 1001010. Two 0s can be placed on the left side: (00) 1001010, corresponding to the octal digits 1 1 2, giving the octal significance to the decimal value 45 as 112. for calculation according to the binary number check the binary system and to hexadecimal Hex Calculator.
Using Octal Calculator
In order to make calculations, just follow the steps below:
Enter the first octal digit.
Enter the second octal digit.
Select the type of operation you want to perform: whether the addition, subtraction or multiplication or division or.
Press 'Calculate'
And that's it, it's as simple as that

Midpoint Calculator
What is the midpoint of the calculator?
The term midpoint is a mathematical term related to the coordinate geometry. To understand more about this, consider the following set of coordinates.
A (4, 2) and B (6, 4) and to calculate the midpoint, the following formula would be applied.
Midpoint = (X1 + X2 / 2, Y1 + Y2 / 2)
In the above set of points, the values ​​X1, Y1, X2 and Y2 are given as
X1 = 4, X2 = 6, Y1 = 2, Y2 =
Therefore, the midpoint would be given a
Midpoint = (4 + 6/2 + 4/2 2
Midpoint = (5,0)
A midpoint calculator quality is the most important
The accuracy of the calculations depends on how reliable the calculator used. This calculator is immensely reliable and users can be assured of the accuracy of the results. Here are the steps you need to complete so that the midpoint can be determined
  1. Input values
From the first drop-down menu, it is necessary to select "midpoint". As soon as this option is selected, the text boxes for the four coordinates appear on the screen. Now, here, you have two options for entering values. One is that you can generate values ​​and the other is entering manually. After entering the input values, click the calculate button to generate results. On the right side of the screen, you will see the output values.
  1. Output values ​​produced
When you have entered the proper values ​​input, multiple output values ​​would occur on the right side. These include diameter midpoint circumferences midpoint and the radius of the midpoint
Core Benefits of our calculator
It is not easy to make a selection when you have several alternatives available at your disposal. This calculator is a better alternative for users who wish to calculate the midpoint. Some of the key benefits you can look listed below.
Use online without any facilities
It is a tiring process cumbersome for users when they have tools to install and use. No need to perform these steps when using this calculator. It is completely online and can be used without downloading anything. These benefits users who have less time on their hands and have multiple complete calculations midpoint.
100% accuracy assured
The purpose of using an online calculator is to eliminate all possibilities of accuracy problems. This is only possible if the calculator is reliable. All online calculators are not completely reliable. This calculator is completely reliable and users do not have to check the calculations after the results occur.
Time saving immense ease
Mathematical calculations consume considerable time and it becomes difficult for the particular user when you have to perform the steps more than once. This calculator has a very simple interface and helps in performing various calculations quickly. It is suitable for students and mathematicians. If you wish to complete your task quickly and without making any mistakes, this calculator suit you.
free and without applying use conditions
Not an easy task to find a tool that is really free and has no quality problems. This midpoint calculator is completely free and users do not have to restrict their use to a certain period of time. Other than that, all functions can be used for free. If you want to perform several calculations to the same time, you can do so without having to worry about acquiring a paid version.

Ohms Law Calculator
Ohm's law basically refers to the relationship between the electric current, voltage and resistance also. The electric current depends on a number of different factors including the resistance and voltage are the most prominent. The electric current flow stops by the resistance. Resistance refers basically to the force acting as a reaction to the current flow that is directed opposite to the electric current and therefore the current flow or minimizes stops.
Furthermore, the voltage refers to the potential difference that occurs between both. Ohm's law tells us that the current is directly related to the voltage and inversely related to the resistance. Which has an importance in terms of the description of the current and the factors that influence it one way or another.
The many different uses of this calculator is not deniable and another factor that makes it amazing is that a calculator is not complex or difficult to use. No need '' a lot 'of time to calculate the required value. Therefore, it is not only very useful calculator, but also very comfortable to use. There are some simple instructions and guidelines that will guide you on how to use the calculator. (These are given below)
The calculator is able to calculate three things,
Voltage: With different resistance values ​​and current.
Current: With variable values ​​of resistance and voltage.
Resistance: With numerous different values ​​of voltage and current.
Therefore, two values ​​must be known to calculate the third. In addition, note that values ​​must be with the standard unit.
Example, resistance in OHM and the current in amperes.
You just have to fill the square boxes and by using the formula,
Current = constant x stress / resistance, the calculator gives the required value in seconds.
Also Read:
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Izumi3682 Archives

‘Brain-like microchip the size of fingernail’ could replace supercomputers – MIT study by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 5 months ago
Yes, that is why I posted from RT. I felt they were correct and no other source had released this story at that moment.
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‘Brain-like microchip the size of fingernail’ could replace supercomputers – MIT study by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 5 months ago
Just use critical thinking. I admitted there may be merit to this story and that is why I posted it. I think you should give equal time to CNN and MSNBC as straight up anti-American, godless liberal propaganda.
Anyways all political factions have good ideas and flaws. It's like that one Star Trek episode where Cpt Kirk gets split by the transporter and there is now two Cpt Kirks - one the aggressive, decisive one and the other the touchy-feely, thoughtful one. But both are essential to proper operation of Cpt Kirk. Well the same holds true for the USA at this time. Think of it as a sort of national bicameral mind. Both philosophies are essential to proper operation of the USA.
I would further add that capitalism was very effective in it's day for the bulk of USA citizens, but that it has been going on for so long that clever humans have learned how to effectively game the system for personal benefit. The actual application of capitalism is now wildly skewed, which is why there is a 1% and a 99%. And the AI, robotics and automation are not helping matters. I would hope our exponentially advancing technology would soon allow us to by-pass capitalism, or any "ism" for that matter and get us a post-scarcity society. Or at least basic things would be a lot cheaper or something. Personally I'm hoping the VR will be so awesome that I won't care.
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‘Brain-like microchip the size of fingernail’ could replace supercomputers – MIT study by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 6 points 5 months ago
As a rule I think of RT as straight up Soviet (yes, I said "Soviet") propaganda. Nevertheless this seems to be a fairly new development and it felt appropriate to use this source. Did they get a scoop? Maybe. But take it with a grain of salt.
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$50 Billion Regenerative Medicines Market, 2025 by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 5 months ago
Who is going to benefit from this new technology. I'm sure I can't afford it and I doubt it will be covered by my insurance.
We are describing a new form of technology that is not dependent on a human having a pathology or disease. Yes in the short term it will be for say, the after-effects of an MI or diabetic pathologies, but ultimately this is going to be about making an end run around the processes that precipitate what we perceive as "aging".
Every human being on Earth over the age of, I don't know, say 30 will be entitled to this unprecedented form of biotechnology. Not because anything is wrong with them, but because as a human they have a right to it.
This is why I am both optimistic and worried about the advances we see coming. Who decides who gets what.
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The Era of Quantum Computing Is Here. Outlook: Cloudy by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 5 months ago
Google claims they will achieve "quantum supremacy" this year - 2018. That is really sticking your neck out I'd say. I suspect that they are potentially further along in development than is publicly acknowledged for purely business reasons. IBM is hard at work competing and so is MIT. So I guess we'll just have to see what this year brings.
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Artificial intelligence: China catching up to US in race for technological supremacy by gone_his_own_way in Futurology

[–]izumi3682 3 points 5 months ago
Me 'n China (PRC)
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Yes, They’ve Cloned Monkeys in China. That Doesn’t Mean You’re Next. by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 2 points 5 months ago
Actually humans are logically next. If we are successfully cloning primates, well, humans are next. You are at the top of the food chain now. In China (PRC), their society does not view the same human values as that espoused by the West (read: USA).
If you want to know why and more importantly how China is going to go ahead and just straight up start cloning humans for fun and profit, I have discussed in depth previously if you like.
The USA will be forced to compete.
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AI Startup Using Robots and Lidar to Boost Productivity on Construction Sites by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 5 months ago
I see what is going on now. Between Whole Foods "militaristic" AI driven autonomous stocking system and this micro-managing of construction sites, human employees are not happy. Not one bit.
What appears to be happening is a predicted unholy alliance between AI, automation and robotics and human management to make the life of human employees a living hell. I read just two stories today about this construction thing and another about Whole Foods and I wonder where else this is going on.
I think what will happen is this. Humans will be subtley "nudged" to leave employment that can be now easily automated and controlled by extraordinarily effective narrow AI.
The impact is this. You do not need to unemploy everybody. Just a critical threshold. Right now our unemployment rate is about 4.1%. But if that number ever rose to say, 6% you would see people up in arms. Any higher than that and you would see the beginnings of societal upheaval.
Interestingly at some points in the year 1932, the USA unemployment rate was as high as 25%, but we in the year 2018 and on, would never ever accept anything close to that rate.
It's like I have always maintained. The "technological singularity" notwithstanding, the next 10 years are going to be critical to maintaining society in the USA. The changes are not 25 years away. They are 5 years away.
Whole Foods story from 18 Jan 2018 -
Critically threatened USA employment in the next 5 years:
Sales personnel 4 million employed
Cashiers 3 million employed
Truckers 1.4 million employed
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I can't play horror video games (too scary) but I thought that might be different in VR with more direct control over the gameplay. I mean, I like horror films so a different medium of sorts might work. by jedinatt in virtualreality

[–]izumi3682 1 point 5 months ago
If you play "Dreadhalls" on the Oculus Rift you will get scared so bad you might have a heart attack. I've never seen anything like it.
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Amazon doesn’t care if you accidentally shoplift from its cashier-less store by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 4 points 5 months ago
I bet a lot of this is going to be just straight up home delivery. Particularly when it comes to groceries. I am confident that the AI will ensure you get the most perfectly formed, mold free produce (and also perfect fresh meat cuts) you can imagine. Humans will be doing the delivery for a while I suppose. All them ex-truckers and ex-cashiers you know, but eventually highly mobile bipedal robots will take that over. I seen they are preparing the "Sophia" robot to walk. In a couple of years "she" will be running up and down stairs like no human ever could.
BTW I looked it up.
Truckers in the USA about 1.4 million. Cashiers in the USA about 3 million.
That is only exceeded by retail sales personnel. About 4 million.
I have been buying the bulk of my needs aside from groceries, online. Televisions with installation, computers, VR and all kinds of sundries like clothes and even some groceries. This is all only within the last 3 or 4 years. Before that it really was not possible. Now it's easy to do. No sales personnel required.
I bet a lot of other people are doing this too. And that number will grow.
Employment source:
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Welcome to Muskworld, a map of Elon's interests by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 4 points 5 months ago
Elon Musk is Edison/Ford/Jobs in one package. He is willing to experiment and lose vast amounts of money to attempt advances in human benefitting technology. There is no one else like him and we should be grateful to have him. I am.
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Apple discontinuing the iPhone X in 2018 makes complete sense by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 5 months ago
I have come to the point where I not only understand that I will upgrade my mobile (IPhone X, for example) each year, but that I have come to expect that I will. The reason is simple. The technology is simply exploding and my IPhone 7 went obsolete in one year. I expect the technology that enables my current gen IPhone to also have fallen radically behind the technological curve by September of 2018. I anxiously and impatiently await the next iteration.
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Longeveron Shares Promising State of Regenerative Medicine Research with Experts at the FDA, NIH and Other Leading Organizations at National Conference by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 5 months ago
Important takeaway:
MIAMI, Jan. 23, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- The early results of mesenchymal stem cells studies look encouraging for lessening or reversing the effects of Aging Frailty, Joshua M. Hare, M.D., Director of the Interdisciplinary Stem Cell Institute at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, told experts gathered for the Regenerative Medicine Innovation Workshop held earlier this month in Bethesda, Maryland.
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VR Is Going to be Like Nothing the World has Ever Known - It Will be Utterly Transformative by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 5 months ago
Some people like my writing style with my little tangential digressions and some people don't.
I stick to my guns--in less than 300 years the derivation of humans will be...
fully hive minded non-corporeal sentient energy
I would further add that this "energy" for lack of a better word that we don't have a word for yet will be indistinguishable from the fabric of reality, however you want to define that.
We are nowhere near the "finish" line. You sound like Lord Kelvin in the year 1900, saying that major science was finished and only small measurements and "details" remained. But in 1905 some new science came along that would enable millimeter precise GPS one day and then in 1920 some more new science came along that would enable our soon to be realized quantum computers.
In the year 1900 it was firmly believed to be impossible to sail (read: travel) from New York to Liverpool faster than six days in the finest technology of passenger steamships because the physics would not allow them to go any faster. By 1955 that time was actually cut to about 4 days, but by 1955 the point was moot. Because the aeroplane that came along in the year 1903 simply "transcended" the technology of the passenger steamship.
Well the same thing holds true for today. We have not even seen fully operational quantum computers yet for example. We have not seen fully operational BMIs (brain/machine interfaces). In fact we don't even know what the capability of a classical binary "exa-scale" supercomputer is. Already I know the concept of "jacking in" to the internet or the "Matrix" using physical cables is laughably 20th century. Fantastically amazing discoveries in physics, medicine, computing and electronics will deliver the genuine Matrix to humanity in less than 100 years. Even the most skeptical scientist says the "technological singularity" is less than 50 years away. And whatever that might mean for us.
As we learn to further understand the human mind and its physical anatomy and physiology, we will learn to exploit that knowledge in ways that we can't imagine today. Among other things is something I think of as "'structured' lucid dreams" that can be accessed at any time you desire. You certainly do not have to be asleep.
Then of course the whole AI, robotics and automation thing.
In the short term, say 20 years, the VR will utilize so-called "metalenses" and light field technology, a technology that will utterly transcend the concept of pixels as in 4K or 8K or even the mythical 16K. Still VR in 16K would pretty rock I bet. Certainly enough to pull in the bulk of humanity. And permanently change the way we think.
I think there is one more thing going on here though. There is a new terrible, palpable fear of this incredibly rapidly advancing technology. I will let E.O. Wilson sum it up
We have paleolithic brains.
We have medieval institutions.
We have godlike technology.
Well EO, like Al Jolson famously said; "You ain't seen(heard) nothin' yet!" We are in open waters now. Blue skies. The danger zone. The next 10 years will tell.
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Geneticists: We’re breeding out the genes for higher educational attainment by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 5 months ago
Oh I became a lifer--or at least I stayed in for a bit over 13 years. In 1992 I became as an enlisted individual, eligible for the SSI (special separation benefit) a perk previously available only to officers. I had just returned from a 10 month deployment to Saudi Arabia--Operation Desert Shield/Storm. I decided to bail. I don't regret my service for a minute. But it was a different track than I thought I would take. Such is life.
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There are just as many numbers between 1 and 2 as there are between 1 and infinity. by Bjacob10 in Showerthoughts

[–]izumi3682 0 points 5 months ago
Which is why the concept of quantum computers is so crazy scary.
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Should we consider adolescence to last until age 24? by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 5 months ago
Not true. I have often seen my comment as OP displaced to a distant bottom.
I did not say there would not be wars. Although if history is any guide, no there probably won't be anymore. I feel pretty sanguine about that. But in addition the combination of AI, robotics and automation and learning our lesson over and over will preclude the need for wars and therefore military of human soldiers. Soldiers that are age 18.
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Should we consider adolescence to last until age 24? by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 0 points 5 months ago
I think you replied to the wrong one ;)
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Should we consider adolescence to last until age 24? by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 2 points 5 months ago
Good luck getting anybody to join the military after age 25. Oh, but then again, perhaps we may transcend the need for a military. Also all that AI we are working on may make a human that is age say 18, a very different animal from a 18 year old today.
I would add that historically (the last 2000 years) humans tended to kick off adult life around age 14 because humans just did not live for very long. And childbirth was straight up deadly for everyone involved--mother and child. I would bet a significant percentage of past youth filling adult roles failed (death) in one way or another, but it was a different world too. Youth today are just as exquisitely adapted to our society as youth in the year 1500 were adapted to theirs.
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Steven Spielberg thinks that Ready Player One is a glimpse into our future by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 3 points 5 months ago
I told you...
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Glasses could prevent motion sickness in self-driving cars by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 1 point 5 months ago
Can such a technology be re-worked into VR. It is incredibly frustrating to be having an exceptionally fascinating experience, but having that slowly building unpleasant sensation that makes you reluctantly abandon what you are doing and go lay down with a sick headache for an hour or two. The horrible irony is that the worse the sensation of sim sickness, the better and more immersive the visual experience is usually.
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Geneticists: We’re breeding out the genes for higher educational attainment by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 14 points 5 months ago
In the year 1500 I would have more than likely been involved in some aspect of farming. The same holds true for the years 1600, 1700, 1800 and 1900. As a 57 year old adult in say, the year 1967 there is a high percentage possibility I would have done something akin to what my dad did. The home office of an insurance industry. Specifically "Fire and Marine" located in St Paul, MN. I would have managed one of the underwriting and actuarial departments.
As it was I made a series of poor life decisions and ended up in the US Army, which was one of the poor life decisions, and then I became an X-ray tech in the army. And I stayed an X-ray tech for the next 36 years, which looking back was not the worst poor life decision you can make I guess.
But here is the thing. Aside from some limited college while in the Army plus credit for my military training in radiography that lent me an associates degree, I did not really get any kind of formal education. This plus an almost pathological inability to do the simplest math greatly limited my options. I used a calculator for the first decade as an X-ray tech. After that I could just "eyeball" and know, which is probably a form of unconscious math I suspect.
In the year 1994 there was no internet like today, certainly no reddit. If I wanted information I yet had to rely on encyclopaedias or the library. If I wanted to make a wild claim and then be able to accurately vet my statement it could have taken a week or better to do so. In fact due to that inability, I simply did not make wild claims. The time was not yet right.
Now we are today, 2018. The internet has probably hundreds of millions of independent sources of accurate information, particularly "Wikipedia". I'll be honest with you. I rely on that like I used to rely on the "Encyclopedia Britannica" so I have to have faith that the knowledge is accurate. In a sense an entity like "Wikipedia" allows me a sort of external formal educational degree. I have access to knowledge the likes of which would have been beyond my wildest dreams in the year 1994. And I am careful to never exceed the limits of my knowledge. I try to stay in the posture of "generalist". I rely on those who are far more intelligent and educated to do the heavy lifting. I report on what they do and I attempt to extrapolate. I have drawn a lot of conclusions in the last 8 years. And I believe everyone of them to be correct. You can read my wild prophesies at your leisure.
So despite me not being the most well educated individual, I can manage to write commentary that makes people consider and think about what it means. And one of the things it means is that we are all by simple osmosis becoming far and away better educated. Right now that is because of online free courses and readily accessible accurate, correct and true information. But not too long from now, it will be the effect of the AI, whether external from our minds or as an intrinsic part of our minds.
What effect that will have on humanity is not easy to decipher. I have always believed that the vast majority of our problems in human society are related to inadequate education. What would happen if everyone were to be suddenly more brilliant than the most brilliant humans alive today. What would happen to government, politics, human relations, all the hatreds, religion, crime, even our emotions?
I think we are 20 years or less away from this kind of technology impacting us all. By that I mean that within 5 years you will see evidence of it already changing the way humans think. I believe that AI enhanced human intellect is our future. But we will certainly not be like humans of the year 1967 or even 2018. The concept of the "technological singularity" can be frightening. I have never said it would be safe and effective for humans. Only that it is now unstoppable and inevitable. You can argue that our AI worries are akin to worrying about human overpopulation on the planet Mars, but I think it is more realistic to understand that a phase change is coming in less than 10 years now. Like nothing humanity has ever experienced before.
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Google CEO Sundar Pichai: Digital technology must empower workers, not alienate them by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 2 points 5 months ago
reduce the natality
Good luck reducing "natality". You are going to force people like China?
go colonize the stars
It would take us at our current space flying speed, that humans can move at that is, about 75,000 years to reach Proxima Centauri, the star closest to our sun. And we are not even sure what is there. Could be OK, but it might not pan out. It is a long way/time to travel just to look-see. Everything is just too far away. Even traveling at the speed of light, everything is just too far away. Right now we don't know how to travel at the speed of light or even a tenth of it, little less "warp" about or "fold space".
BTW most humans that would go try to live on the Moon or Mars would simply die of the physical effects on their bodies in a year or two. Probably a little faster on the moon. Gravity matters. We are exquisitely adapted to live at the bottom of our gas ocean/gravity well on Earth. If humans could even manage to bring a human to term for birth in either place, the rapid physical accommodations (if it is even possible) would render that human unable to ever go to Earth again within generations and would certainly hasten speciation.
I argue we need to learn how to leave biology behind. But we would no longer be humans then would we.
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Is aging natural or a pathological disease that we can treat? | by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 3 points 5 months ago
As far as actual application of these methods and theories with the goal of slowing, stopping or reversing the physical effects of aging, this is all brand new. There has been idle, non-actionable philosophy I'm sure, since Ponce de Leon was a pup. This is the rubber hitting the road.
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Is aging natural or a pathological disease that we can treat? | by izumi3682 in Futurology

[–]izumi3682[S] 5 points 5 months ago
The important thing to bear in mind about this discussion is that 10 years ago, there was no discussion. Aging was regarded as a natural meta process that brought about conditions that science and medicine did their best to alleviate. But it was an inevitable whirlpool of continuing physical and cognitive decline and frailty that ended only when breath ended at a point not much more than 117, despite one single outlier--Jeanne Calment age 122 in 1997.
But now that we are finding all kinds of really big vertebrates that are apparently incredibly old like beluga whales that are over 200 years old or that Greenland shark that is believed to have swum the oceans in the time that Galileo walked the Earth, we are beginning to rethink this concept. Previously we knew that invertebrates could live for vast periods of time. Lobsters and hydras and comb jellies, some of which are potentially 1000 years or older. Then the plants, like the bristlecone pine someplace in the southwest USA that may have been alive in the year of Julius Caesar. Some say the Pyramids of Giza, but I'll stay on the conservative end of things here.
My point is that 10 years ago there was no research to address the "natural" process of human aging itself. Now there is. We haven't made that much progress yet, but we have really only been seriously at this for about ohh, I will say 3 or 4 years, despite the efforts of Aubrey De Grey to bring attention to the issue for more than a decade. Talk about "crying in the wilderness".
But just within the last year or two we are at last making documentable progress towards the phenomenon of aging itself! Here is one concrete example.
This is brand spanking new as of the year 2017. And while age related sarcopenia is not aging itself, it is proof that one of the very worst physical effects of human aging is now being addressed as a potentially treatable condition.
It may take decades to actually learn how to effectively slow, stop or even reverse the effects of physical deterioration over time. But in the meantime I suspect that many "stop-gap" measures will soon come into play to further lengthen natural human lifespan.
Really, I talked all about this numerous times earlier. Here is one example of what I had to say. Consider it...
submitted by izumi3682 to u/izumi3682 [link] [comments]

Open thread, July 2017

This is an open thread to discuss items of interest. I may also use it to drop thoughts as they occur to me as well -- something of a replacement of my former "tab closure" posts, as ... well, it seems tabs are simply running away from me. Consider this an experiment that's been mulling for some time.
If you've got a question, observation, link, or anything else, feel free to post it, with a thought to the lair rules -- like house rules, but larrier.


I strongly recommend eleitl's subreddit, /collapsademic/. "Low-volume, low-noise, moderated discussion of our coming collapse".
That's one of a set of "limits and collapse" subs I've created a multireddit for:

Facebook's secret sauce wasn't software, it was Harvard

That is, Facebook was once literally Harvard. Something it very much isn't anymore, a point I noted after cries of "but the normal people are coming" rang out on Mastodon. It's a point danah boyd has also made in her research.
There's a corollary: if your interest is in creating the next Facebook, or even merely disrupting the present one, then it strikes me one viable option would be to identify whatever your next Harvard is -- a cohort of intelligent, attractive, interesting people, who aren't much impressed by Facebook Which Is No Longer Harvard -- and kick some funding and technical support at them.
Your Next Harvard doesn't have to be Harvard, mind, though that's probably a good (and symbolic) target to include. And I can pretty much guarantee that the folks at 1 Hacker Way will go into a blind panic.
Which might just be a sufficient disruption.

Veritasium: What YouTube's algorithm selects for

Derek Muller, among the higher-quality YouTube creators, has reflected from time to time on what makes for successful YouTube content. Much of that (as with other social channels) is strongly dependent on what the site's own algorithms incentivise for. This 12 minute video looks at recent changes, and what this suggests.
Why YouTube Used to Prefer Quality.
This ties in with a ... much larger .. reflection I've been engaged in on media generally. It also highlights one of many failings with The Information Diet, which is that the information appearing online, at social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, or Reddit, or on the sites and content farms feeding those maws, depends tremendously on what is being selected for and promoted.
Muller also fails to consider a few elements:

Tech Ontology -- Blocking factors

I'm trying to explore a few concepts before writing a post (or posts? or book?) on the idea of an ontology of technological mechanisms. In particular a few bits:
Identifying what technology is, specifically, and how it differes from both science and the liberal arts / humanities. There's a very good passage from John Stuart Mill in his Essays on some unsettled Questions of Political Economy:
One of the strongest reasons for drawing the line of separation clearly and broadly between science and art is the following:—That the principle of classification in science most conveniently follows the classification of causes, while arts must necessarily be classified according to the classification of the effects, the production of which is their appropriate end. Now an effect, whether in physics or morals, commonly depends upon a concurrence of causes, and it frequently happens that several of these causes belong to different sciences. Thus in the construction of engines upon the principles of the science of mechanics, it is necessary to bear in mind the chemical properties of the material, such as its liability to oxydize; its electrical and magnetic properties, and so forth. From this it follows that although the necessary foundation of all art is science, that is, the knowledge of the properties or laws of the objects upon which, and with which, the art dons its work; it is not equally true that every art corresponds to one particular science. Each art presupposes, not one science, but science in general; or, at least, many distinct sciences.
Comparing existing ontologies of technology. The Encyclopedia Britannica, the Bacons (Francis and Roger), the Library of Congress Classification System, the Random House Encyclopedia, and Joseph Needham's classifications come to mind.
Comparison with mechanisms within biology. Why biology? Because human technology is, as I see it, an extension of biological mechanisms, at least in large part. Nick Lane in particular has some very interesting work here.
Are the mechanisms themselves technologies? I think my answer here is no, though I want to check myself on this.
The fundamental mechanisms. All the categories boil down to "do less" or "use more", I think.
The Network Elements. Numerous of the categories I've defined have or represent network-type effects. I'm asking myself if these cannot be simplified.
Keeping the end in mind. The ultimate goal of any classification scheme is to find an underlying and simplifying pattern. The realisation as I started putting this together was that each of the mechanisms implied specific benefits, and disadvantages, for the associated mechanisms, as well as a set of common features.
Disruption. I'm looking for ways Clayton Christensen's concept comes in to play. See also Jill Lepore's The Disruption Machine: What the gospel of innovation gets wrong (2014).

John Baez, Category & Network Theory

Category theory and Network Theory are areas of research of University of California, Riverside, physics professor John Baez. I've been playing catch-up with his G+ profile and Azimuth blog. Baez has maths I don't have, but the ideas he's pursuing strike me as similar to where I'm going with my own.
See particularly his Oxford Network Theory collection.

Can privacy be quantified?

This presupposes a few other questions, including defining what privacy is.
Jill Lepore, again, has a University of Kansas lecture, "Unseen - the History of Privacy" (April, 2017), which suggests a progression from mystery to secrecy, then privacy:
Lepore also notes that "the case for privacy always comes too late" -- after the horse is out of the barn. Debates over privacy always lag advances in technology.
There's a related set of etymologies: cabinet, a chamber of secrets, secretary, one entrusted to secrets, and secret itself: "set apart, withdrawn; hidden, concealed, private", from PIE root *krei- "to sieve," thus "discriminate, distinguish".
It seems to me that privacy is the abilty to set, define, and defend boundaries. (A source of rather constant friction with Google.) In which case some of the possiblities for measurement:
That's a partial and speculative list, but it gives some sense of where I'm looking.

Employment and Automation: Why is factory work different?

The focus on the automation debate is over the likely falling wages, and apparently job security, of labour. This frequently prompts the counterargument that factory work was an earlier age's version of automation, and ultimately paid well.
One though that occurs: What if manufacturing-based factory work was an exception?
And if so, an exception to what, exactliy, and why?
A few points come to mind, with Arnold Toynbee's Lectures on the Industrial Revolution and Robert Gordon's The Rise and Fall of American Growth supplying much of the background here.
Adam Smith writes of the five factors which provide for a premium on wages:
first, the agreeableness or disagreeableness of the employments themselves; secondly, the easiness and cheapness, or the difficulty and expense of learning them; thirdly, the constancy or inconstancy of employment in them; fourthly, the small or great trust which must be reposed in those who exercise them; and, fifthly, the probability or improbability of success in them.
Several of these apply to factory work:
That's four of the five factors.
The real key to me though is that the role of human workers was as the brains and control element of a structured, automated, and powered process. Factory work is very much literally a force multiplier of raw human skill. A single man, plus machines, could have his output multiplied many times. And due to the considerations above, plus unionisation, eventually claimed a high wage.
The question is how these factors extend into the coming world of work. I have concerns. And I don't see any of the discussion of this point following the lines of analysis I've given here.
Further development in a comment at The Other Place.
And, back to unionisation: factories represent both a strength and a weakness of monopoly-as-network-control.
On the one hand, a factory is a nexus of capital, access to financing, marketing and vendor relationships, transport, power or energy, and labour. On the other, a factory is much like a mine: you cannot simply pick it up an move it to another location. Or at least this was far less true in the 19th and much of the 20th century. Over the past 50 years or so, mobility of capital, and the ability to finance and construct new factories largely at-will has increased, with labour organisation falling largely in parallel.

The Brain and the Eighth Hand

I was reminded of a fantastical riff Yonatan Zunger posted to G+ a while back in which he created an entire wealth, class, and informational complexity theory around Star Wars vaporator droids. This is fiction-on-fiction, mind, but a wonderful set of imagery:
When Owen asked C-3PO if he spoke the binary language of moisture vaporators, the proper answer for him to give (in binary) would have been "with neither too many hands nor too few," that being the idiom for speaking politely and properly. Moisture vaporators use their hands as communication ports, each finger transmitting or receiving a single channel, and touch hands to one another in order to speak; if you were to speak with more hands than the listener had available, they would miss part of what you were saying, and (especially if that were crucial metadata) they would not be able to understand you. Conversely, if you spoke with fewer hands than they listened with, your transmissions would be slow, stilted, taking far too much time. Speaking with the appropriate number of hands is a key aspect of their culture.
But as with many societies, etiquette conceals notions of class: the number of hands a moisture vaporator has is largely determined by wealth and their role. As a result, a common worker with only two or three hands will always seem slow-witted and foolish when trying to speak to a five-handed member of their bourgeoisie, and that burgher would in turn feel profoundly uncomfortable in "seven-handed society."
An eighth hand, by law and by custom, is permitted only to their Emperor, and in fact "the eighth hand" is both a symbol of and metaphor for Imperial power.
So, we get communications, class, wealth, status, and complexity of thought, in one package.
I'd run across an item at Nautilus (fantastic online source, by the way, and they're actively soliciting support currently), "How Your Brain Decides Without You:
The structure of the brain [Lisa Feldman Barrett] notes, is such that there are many more intrinsic connections between neurons than there are connections that bring sensory information from the world. From that incomplete picture, she says, the brain is “filling in the details, making sense out of ambiguous sensory input.” The brain, she says, is an “inference generating organ.” She describes an increasingly well-supported working hypothesis called predictive coding, according to which perceptions are driven by your own brain and corrected by input from the world. There would otherwise simple be too much sensory input to take in. “It’s not efficient,” she says. “The brain has to find other ways to work.” So it constantly predicts. When “the sensory information that comes in does not match your prediction,” she says, “you either change your prediction—or you change the sensory information that you receive.”
To which I obseved on the Inevitability of the Eighth Hand, by the Emperor, that is, the decisionmaking centre of society:
Thus: the emperor must always have the eighth hand, and proper interpretation and framing of the Universe requires more processing power then sensing power, and/or the obligation to discard information which cannot be integrated into the receiving frame.
On which I'll note that the most startling element of this whole episode was that I was actually able to find it using G+ search -- otherwise almost wholly useless.

"Forward to the Past" -- the Digital Library as the problem, not the solution

Eric van der Velde writes on my newfound obsession, libraries, in "Forward to the Past". I've points of disagreement and agreement.
What particularly caught my attention, though, is this:
Why is there no scholarly app store, where students and faculty can build their own libraries?
Though I disagree with the market-based approach, the premise of a self-controlled, self-contained facility for personal information management ... yeah, I'm kinda hankering that way myself.

Subreddit styling: Geopolitics has a wonderful thread-collapse design

I'd first run across this some time back ... and then couldn't recall which subreddit it was. /Geopolitics has a very slick CSS where the "collapse thread" control runs the full height of the left-hand margin, for each nesting level of a comment thread. If you've decided you've had enough of a particular digression, you can close any level of it with a single click, without having to hunt up-thread for the relevant comment. See this archived post for an example.
I'm impressed and may well steal the concept. Good UI is very rare. This is a good UI.
Why? It puts the control directly in context, makes it easy, makes it obvious, and, should you close an item by accident, makes undoing the action trivially easy.

China and classifications of industrial sectors

In a YouTube video, Mark Anderson of INVNT/IP makes mention of a classification by China of the global economy into 417 sectors, and apparently is targeting those for economic espionage. On inquiring as to where that classification is made: the Communist Party of China's 12th Five Year Plan, 2011 - 2015.
Which I now feel I need to find an English translation of.
I did track down a U.S. government assessment of the plan, however. And in that, a further interesting note on what it considers to be a failure of the plan: though the performance targets of the plan were generally hit (and fairly impressively so), the analysis argues that the structural foundations of the economy weren't adequately addressed. This strikes me as an interesting possible response to various "things are going so amazingly awfully terrifically swell!!!" glurge posts which emerge from time to time. Interesting how vision clears when focused outward....

The Tech Ontology Purity Test: Filters

Another aspect of the tech ontology: I'm somewhat stuck on the point of various purification processes and mechanisms and how these fit within the notional framework I've conceived. Especially as this capability is a highly fundamental biological process, one that is key to virtually any process. Actually, it gets us straight back to entropy and de-entropisation.
A process by which a conglomeration of two (or more) things can be reduced to two (or more) separate collections, each with only one set of components to it, is what de-entroposiation is all about.
That might be a mechanical sorting (e.g., hand-picking), size-based filters (sieves, nets, filters), density differentials (wheat/chaff sorting, bouancy, air-jet separation, charged beam, gas diffusion, centrifuge), magnetic properties, distillation processes, chemical solutions, ion-diffussion / proton-pump mechanisms (cell-wall), etc. The upshot is: how do you distinguish between what you want, and then, somehow, act differentially on the one vs. the other?
Is this strictly a process knowlege, in which case it falls under "technology"? Is it a class of actions? Is it material properties? Systems management?

Asset price inflation and Adam Smith

A wonderful Smith quote:
As soon as the land of any country has all become private property, the landlords, like all other men, love to reap where they never sowed, and demand a rent even for its natural produce.
-- Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, Book I, Chapter VI
See previously, Asset Price Inflation of Maslovian and Productive Goods.

Robert Behn and "Gresham's Law of Leadership Strategies"

From his book The performanceStat potential a leadership strategy for producing results, Robert Behn distills what I see as a statement of Gresham's Law as a generalised constraint on complexity within systems:
He starts with the pithy observation:
Simple leadership strategies drive out the complex.
But then expands this more completely, showing the information-theoretical underpinnings of the fundamental Gresham's mechanism:
Simple, easily explained, easily comprehended, explicit-knowledge descriptions of a leadership strategy dive out subtle, complicated, tacit-knowlege appreciation for the potential of a complex leadership strategy to influence organizational behavior in ways that improve performance.
He continues to note that this comes in two forms:
  1. We humans prefer simple leadership strategies to complex ones.
  2. We also prefer simple explanations of complex leadership strategies to the subtle and complicated reality.
What I particularly like is the focus on several elements of psychology and cognition:
This suggests a subsuming mechanisms for Gresham's Law which jibes with concepts from Darwinian evolution: that systems evolve complexity costs, and that among the selective pressures which exist are those for a minimisation of complexity in light of such costs. There's an article on a computational evolution experiment, "Meet the Animats", which notes that there is a minimum complexity bound to various maze-traversal "animat" bots, though, without a complexity cost factor, the experiment found no constraint on the upward bound of complexity.
A few minor edits -- mostly deletions -- makes Behn's formulation on page 42 (appropriate) much more general:
"Simple, easily explained, easily comprehended, explicit-knowledge, descriptions ... drive out subtle, complicated, tacit-knowledge appreciation for the potential of a complex model."

Pilots vs. software users

From HN, ncallaway and kbuttler note that the airline industry's safety record is based on pushing beyond "pilot error" as an acceptable prime factor in accidents, and that the software industry might well do similarly.
While I agree generally with that sentiment, there's a key difference.
Airplane pilots are licensed, certified, trained, and regulated. There's a clear floor to who is allowed in the cockpit (barring extreme emergencies, e.g., incapacitation of a pilot). By contrast, software is made available to pretty much the entire world. And it turns out that two thirds of all adults have "poor", "below poor", or no computer skills at all. Which is to say, the qualifications floor is nonexistent. It's the tyranny of the minimum viable user.
If you're designing a one-size-fits-all system, you've got to design for this. The results, I'd argue, are ... not particularly satisfactory.
I'm not saying "don't design for the user in mind", or "don't dismiss user error". But rather, than when your floor is zero, you're going to have a remarkably difficult challenge.

One last thing ...

Do you like what you're reading here? Would you like to see a broader discussion? Do you think there are ideas which should be shared more broadly?
The Lair isn't a numbers game, my real goal is quality -- reaching, and hopefully interacting with, an intelligent online community. Something which I've found, in several decades of online interactions, difficult to achieve.
But there's something which works surprisingly well: word of mouth. Shares, by others, to appropriate venues, have generated the best interactions. I do some of that, but I could use your help as well.
So: if you see something that strikes you as particularly cogent (or, perhaps, insipid), please share it. To another subreddit. To Twitter or Facebook or G+. To the small-but-high-quality Metafilter. To your blogging circle, or a mailing list. If you work in technology, or policy, or economics, there as well.
Thanks, Morbius.
submitted by dredmorbius to dredmorbius [link] [comments]

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ICT#7 Wikipedia Free online encyclopedia, how to use wikipedia in Various languages including Pashto

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